Juanita: The ice girl

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In 1995, in the snowcapped mountain of Ampato in Arequipa, Johan Reinhard and Miguel Zárate discovered, buried in the ice, the corpse of 12 year old inca girl that would have been sacrificed in the times of the Inca Pachacutec reign, around 1450 A.D.

 

Surrounding her there were many “illas” or gold idols as well as others made from spondylus’ shells.  The archeologists also found nineteen types of plants -with corn and legumes standing out- and dried llama meat (charqui), which made them think that the girl, they named Juanita, was a young “Aclla”, a maid that belonged to the Inca that would have been offered in sacrifice to the god Wiracocha to appease the volcano activity in the area.

 

Contrary to what is generally believed, the girl, known as the Lady of Ampato, would not have passed by an artificial mummification process in which the internal organs are extracted to embalm the body in order to preserve it. But “Juanita” maintains intact all of hers due to the glacial frozen (natural mummification) of the Ampato’s snow mountain, where the offering was left. After the discovery of “Juanita”, the explorers found two more bodies: Urpicha and Sarita.

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Investigations determined that by the time of her death, Juanita had perfect teeth, strong bones, that she had not suffer from any kind of disease and that she died from a blow in her head. Close to the day of the offering, she was under strict fast and about 6 to 8 hours before the sacrifice was performed, she ate a meal of vegetables. Likewise, she was prepared with plants and coca leafs to numb her.

 

It is known that those who were chosen by the Inca for sacrifices were prepared from an early age. This is why Juanita must have been the object of important rituals that started in her homeland and continued through her pilgrimage towards Ampato. Today, her mummified body is in the Museo Santuario de Altura del Sur Andino of the University Católica de Santa María in Arequipa.

 

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Qorikancha: The Temple of the Sun

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The Qorikancha was the center of the Inca world. From it, the imaginary lines called Ceques departed, organizing the sanctuaries or huacas that surrounded Cusco and that gave to the capital of the Tahuantinsuyo its sacred character. Upon its foundations, the Spanish built the Church and Convent of Santo Domingo.

 

Qorikancha’s internal walls, which are covered in gold leaf, would have been remodeled by Inca Pachacutec during the reconstruction of Cusco city around the year 1438. It is not certain who could have built them, but the work appears to be from pre inca times, when the city was dominated by series of “ayllus”, known as the Ayarmacas. These communities called it the Inticancha.

 

The chronicler Inca Garcilaso De la Vega described that there were also many kind of divinities in the Qorikancha and a large garden with golden and silver life size animals, treasures that were delivered to the spanish for the rescue of Inca Atahualpa; the rest was looted, around 1533, in order to be molten and sent to Spain. Finally, by 1560, Juan Pizarro would inherited the “Temple of the Sun”, the most important religious center of the Tahuantinsuyo to the the order of preachers, who are still its owners today.

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Nowadays, the Convent of Santo Domingo is one of the main cultural centers in Cusco. Apart from the art expositions, it is used for events like concerts, conversation groups, audiovisual presentations, book presentations, theatrical plays, festivals and other artistic events.

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The untamed Uros

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The populated center of the Uros, part of the National Reserve of the Titicaca, is a group of 40 floating artificial islands built with totora, a plant that grows up to 4,000 meters high -either cultivated or wild- in lagoons and swampy areas of the mountains and shores of Perú.

According to chroniclers and historians, uros are recognized as the elder residents of the Collasuyo region, and some even consider them as the most ancient race in the American continent, to the point of being the survivors of a planetary cataclysm that would have occurred in a previous time to the actual civilization.

 

What has been confirmed is that they never had a cacique leader, that they fed with totora roots, in addition to fishing, and that their original language would have been the puquina, a dialect that has slowly disappeared with the imposition of aymara, the native language of the Collao’s plateau. The word “uros” originates from the aymara word “uri”, which means indomitable.

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In the island of the Uros the weather is, like in every Puno highland, dry and cold, being 20°C the maximum temperature. Rainy through the months of December and March, and sunny through April and November, although during these last two months is when the so called “frost” happens, when temperatures, due to snowfall, are lower than usual. We recommend to be dressed warmly.

In the island, there are families that offer their houses as lodging to tourist that are in search for a more engaging experience with the culture and traditions of the millenarian villagers, like fishing, hunting and the planting and harvesting of the totora; the craftwork and their chants. Located about 7 kilometers from Puno, you need to embark on a half hour journey through the grand lake Titicaca to get there. Truly a unique experience.

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Piquillacta: The Wari fortress of the Sacred Valley

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Located about 30 kilometers from Cusco, Piquillacta is the best known archaeological complex of Wari culture outside its capital, located in Ayacucho. The Wari Empire thrived between the years 500 A.D. and 1000 A.D. and although the center of Wari’s empire was mainly located in the province of Huanta (Ayacucho), there are evidences that its influence expanded from the north mochica area down to the Nazca territories down south, encompassing the mountains and the coast of the actual peruvian lands.

 

Piquillacta’s occupation lasted from the VI to X century. The name of the citadel comes from the quechua words “piki”, a kind of flea, and “llacta”, small, meaning “small town”. Archeological evidence suggest that the Wari, a civilization previous to the Incas, settled first in the neighboring Huaro valley, and then, around the 530 A.D., started the construction of Piquillacta, which would confirm the theory of a remote encounter between the Cusco’s and Ayacucho’s people, centuries before the Wari expansion.

 

The citadel presents a remarkable urban planification, with a geometric plan that is close to perfection. The buildings, courtyards and main squares were constructed in a rectangular way. The edifications, of uncarved stone and adobe, are arranged in separated groups by straight streets and surrounded by walls up to 12 meters high, that made it look like a fortress. This construction comprises 700 buildings, 200 court yards and 508 storages or colcas, some of them up to three stories tall and, despite the fact that Piquillacta could have alberged around 10 thousand people, it would appear that it was never completely inhabited.

 

In reference to Piquillacta’s walled perimeter, the reason for its construction would have been to protect the site from other ethnies living nearby in the pre-inca Cusco area, that fought with stubborn resistance the Wari occupation, who would eventually won.

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Established in the ravine of the Lucre river, Piquillacta emerged with the purpose of taking control of the new lands in the nearby Urubamba valley. However, the main administrative center of the region would have been abandoned when the decadence of the Wari state began in 900 A.D.

 

To visit this archeological complex, you can take one of the buses going over the Cusco-Uros route and ask the driver to warn you once you get to Piquillacta; the complex can be seen from the road. There are also collective taxis that depart from La Cultura avenue (in front of San Antonio de Abad University). The journey lasts approximately half an hour. And there are also other touristic operators that offer a one day tour to the spot.

 

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Silver Q’ente for Tierra Viva Cusco Plaza

We feel happy and proud to announce that our hotel Tierra Viva Cusco Plaza has obtained the Silver Q’ente Award to the best hotel in the 3 stars category.

 

The Q’ente Award is the maximum acknowledgement that the Regional Government of Cusco and the Regional Direction of Exterior Commerce and Tourism (DIRCETUR) annually grant to touristic enterprises that accomplish the highest standards of business management and touristic services of great quality, with social and environmental responsibility, which portrait a role model.

 

We are very thankful to the Regional Direction of Exterior Commerce and Tourism for this recognition and also to our workers, without them this accomplishment would have not been possible. We are committed to keep improving to give the best service of the city.

 

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The sacred Huaca of Tambomachay

As viceregal functionary Juan Polo de Ondegardo y Zárate once told in his book Treaty and investigation about the superstitions of the Indians (1559), “the city of Cuzco was home and dwelling of gods, and thus there was not, in all of it, a fountain, a passage or wall that did not held mystery”. From the 350 shrines surrounding Cusco, 92 belonged to wellsprings and water fountains, being one of them “Quinua Puquio”, known  today as Tambomachay (from the quechua word “tanpu mach’ay”, which means place to rest), a construction which reason to be was the water, as an element of life and worship.

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The archeological complex, known also as The Inca Baths, is located above Tambomachay’s river. Jesuit priest Bernabé Cobo locates it at the center of the first seq’e (ceque) out of the nine that belonged to the old Antisuyo path. In his book History of the New World, Cobo defines the ceques as lines that, starting off from the Coricancha -temple of the Sun-, served to organize the sanctuaries or huacas of Cusco, creating a complex spatial-religious system that gave Tahuantisuyo’s capital its eminently sacred character.

 

According to Cobo, Tambomachay was the ninth huaca of the Collana’s ceque and was “one of the houses of Inca Yupanqui and where he stayed to rest when hunting. It was located in a mountain close to the Inca Trail. There, they used to practice sacrifices of every kind of living beings, except children”. He defines the place as a “fontezuela” (a little water fountain) conformed by two wellsprings.

 

But apart from the sacred character of Tambomachay, what will surprise you the most is the architectural complex, completely adapted to the natural scenery, in which the Incas demonstrate their amazing dominance of the principles of hydraulic engineering with a meticulous handling of the underground wellspring, achieving a flowing that runs, through the different aqueducts, in a continuous and controlled way.

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Tambomachay is in front of Puka Pukara ruines, just seven kilometers away from Cusco’s downtown. It is an excellent departure point to attend other archeological sites in the area, like the Temple of the Moon and Qenco. A good way to get there is also by horseriding, since there are several tour agencies offering that experience. Don’t leave without visiting any of these.

 

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The peruvian pisco path

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Original from the cultural and ethnic mix of Spain and Peru’s native roots, Pisco is a pure distilled from grapes that represents feast and celebration. About the origins of the word “pisco”, the lexicologist Cesar Angeles Caballero identifies four causes; the first one situated in pre columbian times that blends with hispanic elements set up by the spanish Colonies.

 

On the other hand, quechua natives of the now Ica region used to call  “pisku” the diverse species of birds that inhabit the place, a word that eventually would transformed into “Pisco” and identified the same geographical area. About its ethnic origins, Angeles also indicates that from pre hispanic times, groups descendents from Paracas, who lived in the area where the port of Pisco is now located, were very handy with pottery. This community, that would have been conquered by the Inca Pachacutec, elaborated containers from clay that were used to store all kind of liquids -mainly chicha-. These containers were called “piskos” and, when the spanish arrived, it started to be used to kept brandy made of the grape that was produced in the area.

 

That is why drinking pisco in one of the best ways of getting to know Peru. If you haven’t try it like it’s supposed to, we recommend you to follow the path of the Pisco Route.

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Departing from Lima, the first stop is Lunahuaná. There is no better start than El Paraiso’s pisco cellar. This place produces one of the most awarded Pisco Italia. Other pisco cellars, such as El Olimpo and Los Reyes, are also quite emblematic. But if you really want to soak up the whole experience of the variety in the zone, stroll around La Casa del Pisco, located in the main square of Lunahuaná.

 

Nowadays, Ica is know to be the land of pisco. Over there are so many pisco cellars that is hard to pay a visit to all of them; nevertheless, you can’t go without tasting the Cholo Matías pisco and, if it is possible, visiting the family that produces it: they a great variety of grapes and the best pisco made ​​from them: Quebranta, Italia, Albilla, Torontel, Moscatel, among others.

 

In the same area, Caravedo’s pisco cellar offers the best macerated pisco in Peru. Their preparations contain ecological pisco, very characteristic of this cellar owned by Rodrigo Pesquiera. There is also Mrs. Juanita, from the estate Tres Esquinas, known to everyone as “La Dama del Pisco” or the Lady of Pisco. It’s worthy to pay a visit to Mrs. Juanita and listen to her singing to her grapes. But if you want to meet the bad boys of pisco, the pure strain “pisqueros”, ask for the FBI (Federation of Drinkers of Ica), leaded by Chaucato Mejía -permanent president-. The vivid group will surprise you with the Pisco Macho of 48°.

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Another land that is also known for its pisco tradition is Moquegua, were cellars are very close to each other and connected by perfect signaling (the only signboards in Peru that indicate the route of Pisco). It is very common to see in this area to all of the producers of this beverage passing to one and other a little glass of pisco; they start with a bottle and finish “testing” all of the pisco offered in the region.

 

Biondi is a pisco cellar we also recommend in Moquegua; aswell as El Mocho pisco, from Norville’s cellar, with its one liter alembic, and the pisquero Tito Paredes, three treasures you can’t miss.

 

We hope you take advantage of these tips we shared you and include your own personal variants in your pisco path. You never know what surprises you may find in the way…

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Juliaca: a town of history

The history of Juliaca -from the quechua word xullasca, which means covered in snow- goes back thousand of years. The first evidence of life ever found was from the year 10000 a.C of hunters and gatherers. The reason for this, it is believed, was the weather -less aggressive in those years- which contributed to the proliferation of many animals like vizcachas, deers and camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicunas) and birds, all of these, apparently, favorite food of the new habitants.

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Then, with the discovery of pottery, a new culture emerged. Qaluyo -the first of the area-, later followed by cultures like Pukara -around mountain Waynarroque- and Tiwanaku, and by the III and IV century d.C, Qaluyo became a society now known as Waynarroque Culture. The Waynarroque dedicated to agriculture, livestock, fishing and hunting.

 

Approximately from the VII to the X century, Tiwanaku’s colonist state -the most important pre Inca civilization- took control of great part of the plateau that would later became into Kollasuyo. The Juliaca people, however, in spite of geographically being under the domain of Tiwanako, did not receive much of its cultural influence -this allowed them to developed almost independently- because Juliaca belonged to the Aymara Kingdom of Qolla.

 

The Incas would have come later. Guided by Pachacutec, they fought -and won- against the Qolla army that was ruled by Chuchi Capac. The victories occurred in Ayaviri and Pukara, which would have become from that moment a part of Tawantinsuyo´s territory. The Qollas rebelled in many occasions but by 1474 they were subjugated and later relocated to settlements, where they were found by the spanish that came with the conquest around the XVI century and with the purpose of transforming Xullaca town into Juliaca, incorporating it to the Buenos Aires viceroyalty.

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Millenarian Taquile

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Floating in the vastness of Lake Titicaca, three hours sailing from Puno, you can find Taquile, a small island inhabited by an ancient Quechua community that has kept intact its traditional customs and forms of social organization -former to the Incas- where common life and collective decision making are priority. From here it can be appreciated the expanse of the Titicaca and, in the distance, the snowy Cordillera Real in Bolivia, certainly a spectacular view.

 

One of the main attractions of Taquile is that its people are owners of a weaving tradition that dates back to the ancient Colla, Pucara and Inca civilizations. Even today, they use old techniques to produce their tissues, considered among the finest in the world. UNESCO even named them “Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity”.

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And for a community that stands out for its beautiful looms, its inhabitants could not be left behind; taquileños have a peculiar way of dressing, men wear black pants, white shirt and a short jacket, that depending on its color and shape defines the role of each person in the community. Likewise, the way they use the chullo separates married man from singles, and those in search of a partner. Women, on the other hand wear red blouses and multicolored skirts that they cover with a black one. And to protect their faces from the strong sun, they use a hat typical of the place.

Taquileños are also known for the innovative tourism model implemented by the community since the seventies, offering tourists to stay at their homes and share their daily life activities, such as sheep and guinea pig breeding, fishing on Lake Titicaca, and potato crops.

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There are two seasons in Taquile, a rainy and a dry one. Nonetheless in both seasons the days are warm and the nights are cold, so it is advisable to go prepared. The experience is unforgettable.

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Inexplicable Markawasi

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Markawasi (4000 m) is an enigmatic stone forest, located in the mountain range of Lima, on which much has been written. Several authors, fascinated by the mysterious and imposing landscape, have attributed the origin of its unusual geological formations to ancient cultures that are lost in time, while others have attributed it to beings from other galaxies.

 

In this regard, it is known a study made ​​by Dr. Daniel Ruzo in 1952, “Marcahuasi, history of discovery”, which postulated that the plateau was inhabited, in ancient times, by the so called “culture Masma”, a civilization which would have left stone figures around the world. This is why the eerie silence surrounding the plateau, the huge mountains around and the energy that seems to radiate from the stones, make this place one of the most mystical of the planet.

 

The fact is that Markawasi is important not only for its stone sculptures, but for being the center of origin of the early history of Andean culture, with its archaeological remains in the area known as Fortaleza, the pre-Inca chullpas, irrigation channels, its observation center and stunning volcanic stone amphitheater, to which are added the lagoons and the biodiversity of the high andean ecosystem, making it an ideal place to practice ecological and cultural tourism.

 

The first references to Markawasi Plateau are in the chronicles about the myths of the area, as well as notes from explorers like Dr. Julio C. Tello. But the most important contribution is that by Dr. Ruzo, who photographed hundreds of human and animal sculptures -of which the best known is, perhaps, the Monument to Humanity-, that must be observed from a specific angle and when the sun is in an exact sector in heaven.

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The Quechua name “Markawasi” means “house of the people”. It is a plateau glacier -probably once ice covered- with volcanic rocks which form a spectacular site with cliffs, large flat areas, ponds and of course, abundant rocks are carved by abrasion and other geological agents such as rain and wind.

 

To get there you must go first through San Pedro de Casta (90 km from Lima), a town renowned for its traditional water festival. From there you walk three hours to the area known as Amphitheatre. You can contact guides in town. We recommend warm clothing for the night and if you plan to stay overnight at the site is essential a tent and a good sleeping bag.

 

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Contact Info

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Av. Benavides 1579, Oficina 303 Miraflores, Lima 18 Lima - Perú Phone/Fax: (511) 370 9080 info@tierravivahoteles.com blog.tierravivahoteles.com